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520 Jewish Quarterly Review. 


Mk. Jacobs' suggestion that the Berlin Bible (Jewish Quarterly 
Review, II., p. 331) was written by Berechiah's son, in the year 1233, and 
not 1333, is strongly confirmed by the day when the copy was finished, 
mentioned in the colophon as Wednesday, the 21st of Heshwan. 
This was the case in 1233, and not in 1333 (Atkenceum, April 19, 1890, 
No. 3,260). As to the omission of the hundreds in this colophon, which 
I have not found in any other MS., Mr. Jacobs communicated to me that 
such is the case in some English Shetars (ed. Davis, p. xiii.). I can find 
it only in one Shetar, viz., No. 150, to which probably a Latin document 
was annexed, with the Christian date. The thousands are wrong anyhow 

in the Berlin colophon, where we read ^2"in fpN, which ought to be 
W3nn for 1233, and 'CXTI for 1333. The Vatican colophon offers some 
difficulties, owing to its being partly obliterated. Assemani. in his 
Catalogue, No. xiv., wrote as follows :— JW 2S BHn "O '3 DV2 VDD"D1 

nj»»nn ^Sn B"3 " finished on Tuesday, the 10th of the month of Ab, 
in the year 59 of the fifth thousand," i.e., according to Assemani, 5059= 
1299. In this year, the 10th of Ab, according to Dr. Mahler's tables, 
fell on Friday, the 10th of July, not to say lhat for 5059 the thousand 
is the sixth ("CttTI) and not the fifth, as given in the colophon. For 
4959=1199, the 10th of Ab fell on a Wednesday, the 6th of July. 
Professor Guidi and Monsignor Ugolini, who both kindly examined the 

colophon in question, read as follows :— 3K tnm N"3 '} DV3 1!TnO»Dl 

b"W iE»Dnn tf?ta tna^> t3"X TUP "finished on Tuesday, the 21st of Ab, 
the year 99 of the fifth thousand." In the Vatican MS. the hundreds are 
also omitted, an omission which seems to be characteristic of our scribe : 
99 could only be 4999, for 4099 is too early ; in 4999, the 21st of Ab 
fell on a Sunday, and not on Tuesday, as said in the colophon. Professor 
Guidi queries the 3, in N"2 and Monsignor Ugolini writes as follows : — 
"Potrebbe ancora leggersi, ma cou minore probability 'V2 " which means 
the 16th of Ab, which, indeed, fell on Tuesday, the 16th of July. We have 
seen that Assemani also read ''3, but Professor Guidi does not doubt 
the 'N in K'O. On the other hand he queries the V in the years, viz., in 
t3"X, for which Assemani puts I2"3 ; the doubtful letter could also be an 
y, tie., 0"V; in the three possible dates, viz., 4959=1199, 4979=1219, and 
4999=1239, however, the 21st of July did not fall on a Tuesday. We 
shall have, therefore, to accept the reading 'V3 the 16th of Ab 
(although usually expressed by T'U. and the 2 being an unnecessary 
repetition), of the years 1199 (12':) or 1219 (D'JJ), but not of 
1239 (0"¥), for the following reason : Elijah mentions in the 
Vatican MS. his father's fables, but not his translations of the 
treatise of Adelhard of Bath, or of the Lapidarium mentioned in the 
Berlin MS.; the copy of the Berlin MS. must consequently be later made 
than that of the Vatican, i.e., the Vatican MS. must have been copied 
before 1233. It is curious to state that the ethical treatise (see below, 
p. 521) is not mentioned at all in either colophon. Mr. Jacobs 
suggested to us the reading of U'" 1 for Q'% and wn for »B"Onn (in 

Notes and Discussion. 521 

the case of the Berlin MS. we find, indeed, that the thousands are 
wrong), and believes that the Vatican MS. was copied in the year 5019= 
1259, and in this year the 21st of Ab, indeed, fell on a Tuesday. This 
is very ingenious, but according to our opinion scarcely possible. In the 
first instance the points of abbreviation over t3'V or Q'J are distinct in the 
Vatican MS., and could not be mistaken as the head of a V. Secondly, 
in 1259, Berechiah must have been over hundred years old, as we shall 
see later on, a fact which would have been mentioned by his son. 
Finally the Vatican colophon must be earlier than that in the Berlin MS., 
which is of the year 1233 (see Jewish Quarterly Review, II., p. 323). 

Anyhow, Mr. Jacobs was right in saying that Berechiah flourished 
towards 1180 1190, but we shall oppose the English naturalisation to 
Berechiah, and we do not believe that he knew Arabic to such an ex- 
tent, if he knew it at all, as to be able to translate from rhymed 
prose. He translated from Latin or from French, but not from Arabic ; 
and his fables, which we shall find adapted from some current texts soon 
after 1190, he composed in Provence or Normandy, but scarcely in 
England (see below p. 523). 

Before we give the arguments for our statements, we shall discuss 
the probable date of Berechiah. His notes on Saadiah, which pre- 
cede in the Parma MS. the ethical treatise he wrote not earlier 
than 1161, and not later than 1170, for he quotes in it a passage of 
Solomon Pirhon's Dictionary, which was composed in 1161, and accord- 
ing to the Parma MS. Berechiah dedicated it to R. Meshullam 3H3H ; 
who is very probably identical with Meshullam ben Jacob of Lunel, to 
whom Judah ibn Thabbon dedicated bis translation of the first part of 
Bahya (or Behai's) treatise, entitled Ilobath hal-Lebaboth, out of which 
Berechiah quotes four passages (Zunz in Geiger's Jiidische Zeitschrift, 
p. 9). Berechiah says as follows, according to a kind communication 

of Dr. L. Modona, of the Parma Library : t6x 13DH r6nm WD?n 

vih t#h tbw ij dSpd 't mjn wn6 nnta? nmo injni • [Dnrtjin 

: [HDnjn mat fp? WT Nim * 11EO pnx There is no adequate reason 
to doubt that this Meshullam was an Italian Nadib (Stein- 
schneider, Hebrew Bibliography, III., p. 44), when we know for certain 
that the Provencal Meshullam was indeed a Maecenas for translations 
of ethico-philosophical literature. He died in the year 1170. Thus we 
find Berechiah in communication with the Provence not later than 1170, 
at the age of twenty years, or little above. He calls himself Naqdan — 
a title which he would scarcely apply to himself at an earlier age than 
twenty. Accordingly Berechiah would have been in the year 1233 aged 
eighty-three, and Elijah calls himself rightly, " son of his father's old 
age " (Jewish Quarterly Review, II., p. 323). That Berechiah was of 
a French-speaking country cannot be doubted from his translation of the 
Lapidarium. if we should even admit, with Dr. Steinschneider, that the 
French words which we find in his translation of Adelhard were sub- 
stituted by a scribe for the Latin words of the original. It is more 
probable that Berechiah himself introduced the French words instead of 
the Latin ones, if, indeed, he did not translate from a French version 
of Adelhard, which has not yet been discovered, for the benefit of his 
French co-religionists who did not know Latin. From extracts given by 
Dr. Zunz of the Parma MS., and which we shall, for convenience sake, 
reproduce in a fuller form, we find that Berechiah mentions there that 
he had already translated Christian treatises from the Latin. This, con- 
sequently, he did when very young, and, perhaps at Dreux, where we 
find his son in 1233. Berechiah, perhaps, visited Provence since the 

522 Jewish Quarterly Review. 

reputation of R. Meshullam might have reaohed Normandy by Abra- 
ham Ibn Ezra, who made a long stay at Dreux before visiting England 
{Revue des Etudes Juices, xviii., p. 303), and the ardent youth 
wished to enter the school of Lunel. How long he remained in 
Provence, and whether he also made a stay at Narbonne, where the 
Kamhis (Kimhis) had established the home of grammatical and exegeti- 
cal studies, we are not sure. What we may say positively is, that 
Berechiah was certainly not idle during twenty years or more after the 
composition of his ethical treatise. Most likely he wrote biblical com- 
mentaries, which are now lost, unless the MS. 28 of the University 
Library contains his commentary on Job (Jewish Quarterly Review, 
II., p. 326), and also grammatical and masoretic treatises, from which 
we have scanty quotations. 

The following passages of the introduction which precede his fables 
will clearly show that he composed his book on the model of Latin or 
French fables, to which he added perhaps, some from the Galllah 
v'Dimnah, after a great massacre in England. He does not say that he 
translated, as he does elsewhere ; but he means to be original. We 
quote from the MSS. 1421 and 1466 of the Bodleian Library. (See 
the New Catalogue, coll. 506 and 520.) He says as follows : — 

\rkr\) jirosn iW d^d t<?x ']ip:n 'xjiioj to ivro ~\ dixj 
• jnrv no ^>Djn » jnsti? naD3 osnsx &6 ox * p3X3 wxti ^oix risa'x 
pana^ 4 na*x jn* ^o • thd ^id oy >315j6 * tjv ix yoy 3 3B>nx * dxi 
^as? vyo ->b>x ' 5 cbwn ^j jaix by ' "bwo anao oy nam • ^» 
: d'ti i^>xi n^on r6x ' mn « *xa ^anon • a^ya 

1 No. 1421, J1T3T. 2 1421, DX. 3 1466, 31BTIX. 4 1466, omits. 
5 1421, 0^3. " 1421 and ed. princeps, "X3. 

"Says Berechiah, son, of Natronai the punctator, who made these 
fables bud and bring forth, How can I endure t > see the destruction of 
them, if I do not write them in a book for a memorial? In my labour 
what will be the profit ? Whether I think to be humble or proud, my 
tongue is the pen of a ready writer. Oh, that my words were now 
written ! The occasion of writing my fables is the turning wheels (the 
fate) of the world, which is hidden from the eyes of my intelligence, 
(the wheel) which tarns in the island of the sea (England), for the one 
to die and the other to live." 

And towards the end he says in verse as follows : — 

n"?as> nnas>oi tu 2 -oyi r6iaB> hyy my > dti \xa 

r6ino jni^i ^>xit2> W> r6ny = rrwy an pxi 

r6ozn tyi yy -ua h"bw rbhv "laa nm 4 i2>am 

5 r6 < ?'> h)p nna» nana -pni ronxi x'n nnoc ejan my 

nbbpb nirma G nanm r6aa inn "ex na nsw 

n^axs » mixi no « pmon rtansa rr?ai ' aioa y-n 

rrpnai naop vnum r6xi hhp \a\ jto-oi 

r6ru3 aoy x^i an^in 10 r6»»jn nain na ^ 3101 

1 1421, DC D"X3 3 1421, DIVyi. the next two lines are omitted. 

3 Ed. pr., D'TPy. i Ed. pr., I^ani. 5 Ed. pr., r6x, against the metre. 

« 1421, 1311 nai 7 Ed. pr., 310. 8 1460, pm03 ; ed. pr., pmOI. 

3 1421, Diixi. 10 1421, n^oy ay. 

Notes and Discussion. 523 

It is difficult to translate faithfully the play upon words in these lines 

of poetry (metre Hazadj in Arabic, Hebrew b'JD; seeM'Zeehet Jia-Shir, 
p. 7). The substance is that the community of the island of the sea 
(England) is in a corrupt state, not assisting to those who ask to be 
helped. Berechiah curses the time and the fate, and he prefers to live 
upon dry bread rather than to be with these people. It seems that 
Berechiah visited England, like Ibn Ezra, but he was not so well re- 
ceived as the Spanish traveller. And when he reached his home 
(Normandy ?) he wrote the Fables. In England he would not have 
dared to utter such language against the rich and influential Jews. 
Could he then be identical with Benedictus the punctator in the Charter 
of 1195? We cannot believe it. Berechiah evidently refers to the 
massacre of 1190 at the coronation of Richard I, and he would 
naturally not have written his words later than a year or two after the 
sad event. The words, " To make bud and bringforth" (above, page 522), 
and ">pm ITX (Jewish Quarterly Review, II., p. 322) can scarcely be 
applied to a translation, although it might be the case, for the passage which 

Berechiah quotes from the vKVDK^n, is from an Arabic author, but it is 
not likely, for all his other translations are made from Latin or French. 
This might be concluded from the following passage found in the MS 
of Munich (Steinschneider in the Isr. Letterbode, viii., p. 25). 

Dnmn rbx pryrb 'jdid oxm • wjn ^lxn 1 ? wntM in rva-o ^k 
D"-ayn \a Dip^nyn -k?k wm *?& anaoa (so) ^nsvo »a nnny pc^o 
nnxiQD (so) moaim inn (so) 'oanni d»d^u anan D3i [i. D"myn] 

(1. ^>33) ^3 (so) 1K1BD H03n 'm*T01 * D^OD J'J? DnQTE' *h D^3B>dV 

naj j3 td ovnrpe (i. annn vsb d^jsi ; so) DnrniD aa^ ij?13D 
: ]ivh [^s] by nbm "ie>k enpn ji^3 (so) a3n3> 

"I, Berechiah. son of Natronai, urged by my thoughts, will gird my loios 
to translate these words (the Qucestiones maturates) into Hebrew, for I 
have found in the wri+ings of the nations who translated them from 
the Arabic, hidden matter and great wisdom, which no eye has perceived : 
And wlien I saw wisdom in an unclean vessel, and pearls before swine [the 
whole passage is corrupted ; our rendering is according to Dr. Stein- 
schneider's emendation], J "purified them from the liand of the strangers, 
and wrote them in Hebrew, a language superior to all other languages." 
The passages in italics we shall find also in another treatise of our 
author (see below p. 524). The MS. of Parma, De Rossi, No. 482 (now 
2106), contains notes on Saadiah Gaon's well known philosophico- 
theological work on " Creeds and Opinions,'' which begins with the 
following words :— J/'D Dill mnmi '11X nSD3 »J01"KM '13 ?V3n3 DXJ 

"10K1 13n»n -)3n JlNJn -OnV rt'6 'X01, such is the title of the third 
part of Saadiah's work in the anonymous translation, most likely made 
before that of Judah ibn Thabbon (Tibbon). We know that transla- 
tions of Jewish Arabic books existed before Tibbon, such as those of 
Gebirol, Bahya, or Behai, Abraham ben David, Judah Hayyoodj, Jonah 
ibn Jannah, and others, some of which were known not only in Provence, 
but also in France, and not improbably in Normandy and England. 
Berechiah quotes other parts of Saadiah's work, viz., lK"lpl "I3D "I3n T1JT 

m ujiamn rbyon in i»anrw d^scopi Sy 'in-ii maim * nrar rtao ; 
this is the fifth part, t^ajn nox pn -nxa nnix roai p6jd nan pxan ; 

this is the sixth part. Towards the end we find the following quotation, 

524 Jeurish Quarterly Review. 

vsi »» 'xn • -ixipa oanaxi nnx2> "rav jisan y?a D'non n«nn p^yai 
can nw -pxi Drvo»a mnxan .-pnn -raw .inn " nW ••• .Tnna DHDiyn; 

this is the treatise, attributed to Saadiah, containing ten questions 
addressed to Saadiah concerning the resurrection, and his answers, 
but in an abridged form (see Mebr. Bibl., xiii., p. 82, note 2). . 

In the course of these notes we read as follows : pjyn , hpnK > !"IT ?3 

"na 31 hmn \»ir\ pxjn nmo -patx nnyi nnyD an ;ixan nuno. 

Berechiah quotes from Gebirol, saying— pya ana ^1T3J px nO^B» '"II 

D 1?y nanX ; and from Abraham ibn Ezra in the following words :— 'T "IOX1 

"1H1 n03n^> K'XI my px DmaX. The name Ibn Ezer, which the rhyme 
requires, is also found in Berechiah's translation of Adelhard, as well 
as in the anonymous translation of the Image du Monde, but not 
iu Seplier hash - Shoham. Pirhon is also mentioned as follows : — 

nuipo nvna m*o nvhw xna ivvn nan naoa ana pma P N nD ^ ">i 
yin -is* x!?a nyn l 1 ? \m -\t6zh nonai mx D'ax^on (rad. "ion. See 

Zunz in Geiger's Zeitschrift, x., p. 9). Dr. Steinschneider (Heir. Bibl., 
xiii., p. 83) says that in the Munich MS. a passage of Abraham ben 

David's K>BJn ^ya is quoted, and concludes from this that Berechiah 
could not have lived so early. Abraham, however, died in 1192 ; why 
could his book not have been written between 1161 and 1170 ? 

Finally the following passage occurs in this note : 'JX WBS' no Dy 

noano <nira nha hi ...mwV? D'un pti6o 'npnyns? nsD noano iT3ia 
[Dpnon nnj *j2 to D'mno <jxi BmiB#> D»un Dip>nyn tax own 

"1DD3. These words in a more extended form are to be found in Bere- 
chiah's PpVOH 'D, MS. of Munich. A second part in the Parma MS., 
which Dr. Steinschneider considers as an extract from the spXOn 'D, 
begins as follows : — 

• xara nia!?a -ib'k S>aB>m • xa ini i^in -in nnpja -i2>x n^ana nan 
nao nx D^ixan nan p ^>y ... p-inx -in 1 ? naD* x!? • pnar^ ana' t6 dx 
jiaxon noam noion wow Da^ ^>x iaw?i owipn u l^ian^ iimn 
nmax n nans? -di h-pa: px note n 'D1 nnyD mn pxan 'd noana 
bwii px -ioxi...nnaWi [nam] mm nan nara pxan noxi ... nty px 
anym moi dx ids nyi -ixvn pya vp ca^n pays D»jn nnain dx 
nanai nnx'vo ^y noyi moo ^>axn pnm n'siiwi mix nso ts>D2>n 
nvnan muy tsd nxxoS ma^ <oi moo typiaon pay ^x yoai moo 

H30D n^n' x!?1 "pry. We know that Gebirol's ethical treatise, with the 
title of Choice of Pearls, was commented upon in France. (See Stein- 
schneider's Catal. libri impr. Bodl., coll. 2323.) 

In order to exhaust our subject as much as possible, we shall give the 
following items : — 1st, the quotation from the Book of the Onyx, which 
is the following, root P|BTI— D»DBTI 1Xipi D^in2> 'D1X 'npJ i"P313 "W 

■pen • naa hi • xoy *a^noi * xoy n^oi nnona. 2nd, Ahron ben 

Hayyim (MS. in the Bodl. Libr., New Catal., col. 423), who was a nephew 
of the martyr Jacob of Corbeil, a contemporary of Jacob ben Meir 
(B. Tam), quotes an explanation of a word from the mouth of R. 
Berachiah ; if he be identical with our Naqdan, we should have the 
approximate date of about 1200 for our Berechiah. Other quotations of 

Notes and Discussion. 525 

a Berechiah are to be found in the Orient (1844), cols. 298 and 299. The 
lamented Professor Franz Delitzsch (Cat. of the Senatorial Library at 
Leipzig, cod. Hebr. I.), suggested that the scribe, Machir ben Crespia, 
might be the son of our Naqdan, which is possible. But, if so, the MS. 
cannot be written three generations after Rashi (about 1180), but rather 
at the beginning of the 13th century, according to Kennicott, 
p. 600 of his Disscrtatio Generalis. 

The Thosaphot to the Pentateuch (British Mus. MS., add. 22092. fol. 
129a, and in the min* nniO Harl.269, fol. 134, for the copy of which we 
are indebted to Mr. Schechter) have the following quotation on Dent. 

xxxii. 39 .- — on*? -iose? ^ ppm rvri-a Tin ioik noy d\t?x p«i 
n'3'pn 2W dut pe6 Dairy*! imp* (M. j., D*3"ixn nest? ^sb) nrva'it* 
tok\s 'n'3'pn iox na'pj |" ina» D^i«n nose* *3^>i • noy dm^>k ps 
msw dto T-3CX *st*n ^3X omoK ib>«3 nrw *rx iota mo »x»n 
1DM3T 3^n t^n (M. J., iiokb> <d^i) noss? 13:31 nance* iy D3*D1 
: x>3 Vsxn uini ^>ax ^3is n\x -n'3'pn iok tax* 

As to Moses, son of Isaac, he wrote his Booh of the Onyx at a 
matured age (he says in his preface that in his youth he composed another 
grammatical treatise), certainly not before the year 1101. since he quotes 
Pirhon's Dictionary, and not after 1200, since he does not quote David 
Kamhi at all. Although descended from an English family he did not 

write in England, which is proved by the words NTWJyjG T^N. 
Showing great acquaintance with Joseph Kamhi's works, we might 
venture to say that he went from his home to NarboDne, 
where he acquired some knowledge of Arabic, under the guidance 
of Joseph Kambi. "We have shown (Jewish Quarterly Review, II., 
p. 324) that he is scarcely the author of the TlpJn 'D and con- 
sequently not the glossator of Joseph Kamhi's J113T 'D. Moses ben Yom 
Tob, whom he quotes, whether his master or not, may be the author 
of the "Jlp3fl 'D, which is attributed to a Moses of London. Indeed, 
passages are quoted in the Thosaphot to the Pentateuch in the name of 
Moses of Londres (see Geiger's Zeitschrift, ix. (1871), p. 231), which are 
not to be found in the Sepher liash-Sholuim, and may belong to Moses, 
son of Yom Tob. Only when passages of " the book of Punctuation " 
will be identified with sayings quoted in the name of Moses of London, 

we shall have a right to consider Moses of EnOW in the Berlin MS. 
identical with Moses of London in the glosses on the Pentateuch. 
Samuel Naqdan, quoted by Moses, is naturally not the same person as 
the scribe of the Bible of St. John's College, Cambridge. The following 
quotations from the Shoham (of which we hope Mr. Collins will be en- 
abled soon to give us a complete edition) might perhaps lead to further 
information concerning its author. 

1°. (Fol. 58, r. i113) he says :— 1138!) (niSWT? DyO nr6 B» '3 'K> "in '101 

b? 'D o"o • tjjo b\> 'b nwi nTjjsi taasroi • \u Dipoa win nvn ft 

: rh)ii nTo nn^> man 

2°. (Fol. 76, r. EHp) he says :— 103 DBtt HIM p)V t6 '3 * "bnSl BHpO 
D2> NS03 t6 '3 ,( ?n33 $>1JD3 Spp.1 B>ip 103 • ^13D3 130Dn31 yj13 BHp 

cip n« ib\s oyjyva ftx u*re» dj • nip3i3 mn&a ms dpi tjt 
ts3 fjipn ntnp iok* enp joi • pi^Dn n» bv pop3 &61 ^>ud3 sjipn 

526 Jewish Quarterly Review. 

nxa nnn ♦ ns>np isti nox* nsi popa sins' enp joi • icy Dyon 

: tpb> mo -ox p • snpi trip jn nios» *tib> »sm nha • loy Dyoni 

.r. (Foi. lid, r. anyo)— mfp.-nom 'n^aaon rnyo • la ns»s myoni 

Nvn • cnn^ <isn rvn sin n: cnn »W>i • nnix mxc *:x o*y n^iya^> 

noix rvn • pma Sya nana np^y n»n Don it>i • nayn uoo onyoc b 

• np'y vnn »a • myno naVs»i nyn joi • epa- rnyp o-y n^aaon nnyo 

: mo ^30 nanan n^yn 'oix tisdw innty n'pyri ;oi 

4°. (Foi. si, r. cs'n)— 'yn'n'S sp^na b»b>n 10a cs'n ^nyos' no jokdi 

is6 sins' 'no^> • np» wn Wn *K»snni mbp nc pi • iwixnni ;o 

Dso n*xsv Dnan *as> 'oi!?a • s>p in^>n trs*n mnn 'oix sin pi • s»x 

: nr ns ?ano ntt? 

If the question about Berechiah and Moses, son of Isaac, may be con- 
sidered settled, those concerning Moses, son of Yom Tob BHO'Jl^D, of 
the two Isaacs, of Russia and Tchernigoff, as well as the Berechiah, the 
author of the commentary on Job in the MS. No. 28 of the University 
Library of Cambridge, remains for the present unsolved. 

A. Netjbatjer. 

I am glad to find that Dr. Neubauer assents to my view of the date of 
Beracbyah Nakdan, and hope that he will one day acknowledge the true 
faith of his identification with Benedict le Puncteur, of Oxford. The 
introduction to the Fables which, I should add, does not exist in the 
edition I used, or indeed in any edition later than the jirinccps, fixes 
Berachyah in England about the time of the massacres of 1190, and we 
find Benedictus le Puncteur at Oxford in 1194. Barring a certificate 
from the hand of Berachyah, I do not see what greater proof of identi- 
fication could be given. lie must have got at least part of his Fables 
from the Arabic, for there is no evidence of such fables as Nos. 28, 36, 
G8, existing in Latin or French, so early as 1190. The difficulty about 
Elijah's colophons is that whichever we fix upon as the first, Berachyah's 
age was then about eighty, and he is scarcely likely to have written much 
after that age. Berechiah was therefore not living at the date of one of 
the colophons whichever be the later. The only thing that seems fixed 
is the Berlin colophon, which my discovery of the day of the week 
settles as 1233. 

I fail to see how Moses ben Isaac's statement that his mother or him- 
self was "in the island Angleterre " proves that he was not there. He 
not alone quotes R. Moses ben Yomtob, whom we know to have been in 
London, but likewise R. Menachem of London. However I am quite 
satisfied with the extent of Dr. Neubauer's conversion, and his careful 
investigation of all the details about Berachyah has earned him the 
thanks of all interested in the subject. 

Joseph Jacobs. 

Samuel Masnuth. — Amongst the recent publications of the society 
Mehitse Nirdamim. we are glad to find the commentary on Job, called 
D*33 PJJD, by Samuel ben Nisim Masnuth, edited from a Bodleian 
MS. by the well known Solomon Buber. The author called his com-